Background: Tuberculosis is an ancient disease which continues to be a major health problem in most developing countries. Bilateral and extensive tuberculosis can cause pulmonary hypertension due to extensive fibrosis which causes distortion of parenchyma. The basic underlying pathophysiology is increase in the pulmonary vascular resistance and pulmonary hypertension. Clinical diagnosis depends on right ventricular dysfunction, pulmonary hypertension and evidence of primary lung disease. Early treatment prevents this late complication of pulmonary tuberculosis.
Methods: This was a cross sectional study conducted among 100 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis patients attending outpatient/ inpatient, are subjected to spirometry, Chest X-Ray, ECG and Echocardiographic studies. Data obtained was noted. Statistically analysed to obtain the prevalence cor pulmonale in patient with PTB. Detailed clinical and radiological profile of those having cor pulmonale was studied. Diagnostic efficacy of echocardiography in cor pulmonale was studied.
Results: The prevalence of cor pulmonale in pulmonary tuberculosis cases in this study is 11%. ECG findings showed that 21% of the patients had p-pulmonale. Echocardiographic features showed 15% had RVH, 17% had RA dilated. 11% of the patients had RVSP >40mmHg and paradoxical movement of IVS. 10% of the patients had TAPSE < 16mm.Conclusion: Echocardiographic features are consistent with clinical evidence of congestive cardiac failure.