The study was done to assess the level of erythropoietin in persons living with HIV in Umuahia. A total number of one hundred and ten (110) subjects were recruited for the study. The subjects were divided into two groups:the first group consists of HIV positive subjects (Test group) and the second group consists of HIV negative subjects (control group). Serum sample was used for the estimation of erythropoietin. Sandwich ELISA method was used to estimate erythropoietin. The results were analysed using t-test with level of significance set at P<0. 05. The results showed significant decrease (p<0. 05) in erythropoietin level of the HIV patients (6. 21±3. 46Mu/Ml) compared to HIV negative subjects (13. 63±5. 19Mu/Ml) respectively. The study showed that there was derangement in the kidney of the HIV patients which decreased erythropoietin synthesis and release and induced anaemia in the patients.