Vol. 3, Issue 3 (2018)
Clinical profile of fever with thrombocytopenia
Author(s): Dayanand Raddi, Vijayalaxmi Kanthe
Abstract: Objectives: Febrile thrombocytopenia is a condition commonly caused by infections. The present study is intended to know the underlying etiology of fever with thrombocytopenia, the various presentations and complications in our community. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted including 1217 patients aged more than 14 years with fever and thrombocytopenia admitted in the medical wards from January 2014 to June 2018. Detailed clinical examination and routine investigations were done; specific investigations like blood culture, widal test, antigen test for malaria, IgM ELISA leptospira, IgM ELISA dengue, bone marrow aspiration/biopsy etc. were done as and when indicated. The data are presented as percentage and numbers. Rates and ratios are computed. Results: Infection was the commonest cause of thrombocytopenia and dengue was the commonest of the infections followed by malaria. Bleeding manifestations were seen in 42.7% of patients. 91.40% of patients with bleeding tendencies had petechiae/purpura as the commonest bleeding manifestation, followed by spontaneous bleeding in 57%. Spontaneous bleeding was noted when platelet counts were less than 20,000. Petechiae/Purpura were seen more commonly when platelet count was in the range of less than or equal to 50,000. Good recovery was noted in 95%, while 5% had mortality. Septicemia accounted for 85.24% of deaths followed by malaria (6.55%) and dengue (5%). Conclusion: Fever with thrombocytopenia is an important clinical condition commonly caused by infections, particularly dengue and malaria. In majority of patients thrombocytopenia was transient and asymptomatic, but in significant number of cases there were bleeding manifestations. On treating the specific cause drastic improvement in platelet count was noted. Mortality in febrile thrombocytopenia is not directly associated with degree of thrombocytopenia but with concomitant involvement of other organs leading to multiorgan dysfunction.