Vol. 3, Issue 2 (2018)
Prevalence of peripheral arterial disease & associated risk factors among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients attending diabetic health camp
Author(s): Dr. Abhay Kumar, Dr. Anil Kumar, Dr. Hemant Kumar, Dr. HK Jha, Dr. Suraj Nayak, Dr. C Roy
Abstract: Background: India is Diabetic capital of the world. The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in diabetic patients is found to be 3.2% in a study from South India and as high as 15.9% in a western population. Peripheral vascular disease has largely been ignored, especially in small cites. Hence present study was carried out to assess the prevalence of PAD in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients by measuring ankle brachial index (ABI) in Darbhanga, Bihar. Objective: To find out the prevalence of PAD and some risk factors associated with it, in T2DM patients attending health camps. Methods: Study Design: Health camp based cross sectional study. Study Population: T2DM patients attending 4 health camps. Sample Size: 124. Duration: From 2nd Sept. 2017 to 18th March 2018. Data collection: From the subjects by interview method using pre tested semi-structured Proforma.ABI screening was done through Hand held Doppler. Individual ABI was obtained for each leg by dividing corresponding ankle pressure by the brachial pressure. The lower of the values obtained for the two legs was taken as the true ABI. A cut off of < 0.9 was used to define peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Data analysis: Using Med-calc and Microsoft Excel. Results: The prevalence of PAD was 16.9% (21/124). Mean age (95%CI) of study population was 35.01 (32.8 to 37.3) yrs. Mean age (95%CI) of PAD cases were 52.42 (46.7 to 58.15) yrs. Risk of it has the association with Age, Smoking, Duration of disease, Hypertension, and no association with sex. Discussion: Using Ankle brachial index, we found evidence of PAD in 16.9% of type 2 diabetics. Risk factors significantly associated with PAD were higher age, longer duration of diabetes, high blood pressure and smoking and obesity. This finding suggests prevalence is also increasing in small city and special attention is needed before the complication advances. The Medical officer should be given training for diagnosis and management that is lacking in periphery.