Oral manifestations in an HIV+ patients and its management
Dr Rita Chouhan, Dr. Matin Ahmad Khan, Dr. Sushilendra Kumar Chouhan, Dr. Shweta Chouhan, Dr. Nazma Arfeen
Oral lesions are among the early signs of HIV infection and can predict its progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A better understanding of the oral manifestations of AIDS in both adults and children has implications for all health care professionals. The knowledge of such alterations would allow for early recognition of HIV-infected patients. HIV-related oral conditions occur in a large proportion of patients, and frequently are misdiagnosed or inadequately treated. Dental expertise is necessary for appropriate management of oral manifestations of HIV infection or AIDS, but many patients do not receive adequate dental care. Common or notable HIV-related oral conditions include xerostomia, candidiasis, oral hairy leukoplakia, periodontal diseases such as linear gingival erythema and necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis, Kaposi's sarcoma, human papilloma virus-associated warts, and ulcerative conditions including herpes simplex virus lesions, recurrent aphthous ulcers, and neutropenic ulcers. Oral manifestations of HIV disease are common and include oral lesions and novel presentations of previously known opportunistic diseases Careful history taking and detailed examination of the patient's oral cavity are important parts of the physical examination and diagnosis requires appropriate investigative techniques. Early recognition, diagnosis, and treatment of HIV-associated oral lesions may reduce morbidity. The present paper reviews epidemiology, relevant aspects of HIV infection related to the mouth in both adults and children, as well as current trends in antiretroviral therapy and its connection with orofacial manifestations related to AIDS.