Vol. 1, Issue 4 (2016)
Radiologic signs of genitourinary tuberculosis: An aid for earlier diagnosis
Author(s): Dr Sanjay Prakash Dhangar, Dr Ibrahim H Kothawala, Dr Sachin Patil, Dr Abhay Kumar, Dr Abhijit Whatkar
Abstract: Objective: We herein describe the various modes of radiological signs of genitourinary tuberculosis (GUTB) and a simple diagnostic approach to it. Materials and Methods: We made a literature search through Medline database and various other peer-reviewed online journals to study the various modes of presentation in GUTB. We reviewed over 100 articles published online, which were tracked through the key words like GUTB and extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Results: GUTB has varied presentation and the most common way of presentation is in the form of irritative voiding symptoms, which are found in more than 50% of the patients. The usual frequency of organ involvement is: kidney, bladder, fallopian tube, and scrotum. The usual tests used to diagnose GUTB are the demonstration of mycobacterium in urine or body fluid and radiographic examination. Intravenous urography (IVU) has been considered to be one of the most useful tests for the anatomical as well as the functional details of kidneys and ureters. In cases of renal failure, MRI can be used. Newer examinations such as radiometric liquid culture systems and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) give rapid results and are highly sensitive in the identification of mycobacterium. Conclusion: GUTB can involve any part of the genitourinary system and presentation may vary from vague urinary symptoms to chronic kidney disease. Plain X-ray and IVU provide us with important diagnostic and functional clues before and after diagnosis of GUTB.
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